The sanitation of large cities: Problems, Challenges and Solutions
IEAAM Conference Cycle "Sustainability of Man on the Planet that Magellan circumnavigated".
Part III. Challenges for a Sustainable Future
This presentation will present major societal issues and challenges with a strong impact on the urban water cycle, in particular sanitation in Developing Countries, and generally the type of approaches and solutions to try to minimise or solve them. In WHO/UNICEF (2017) it is estimated that about 2.3 billion people do not have access to safe sanitation, and of these more than 1/3 still practice open defecation, about 892 million. Globally, wastewater and faecal sludge management is under significant pressure in terms of changes in the solutions and approaches of the respective services, to ensure their sustainability, in the face of population growth, climate change, resource scarcity, expectations of beneficiaries and more demanding legal and regulatory frameworks.
This situation is particularly dramatic in the peri-urban areas of large metropolises in several regions of Africa, South America and Asia, where the population without resources has no access to minimum water, energy and communications services, including minimum hygiene and health conditions.